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Hot but hairy naked girls. Penetration of sperm into vagina inorder to get pregnant. Licking pussy in pantyhose threesome. Nude malay babe in rudung. Sister roleplay pov. Asian teen panty pics. Twink girls suck cock and interracial. Sexy boy sleeping cock. Rusian gay teen tube. While the exact number of Free orgy bi group sex and women worldwide who have undergone FGM remains unknown, at least million girls and women have been cut in 30 countries with representative data on prevalence. However, the majority of girls and women in most countries with available data think FGM should end and there has been an overall decline in the prevalence of the practice over the last three decades, but not all countries have made progress and the pace of decline has been uneven. Type II: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and Circumcision female genital multilation october minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. Type III: Type IV: All other harmful procedures to Circumcision female genital multilation october female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: FGM is condemned by a number of international treaties and conventions, as well as by national legislation in many countries. Similarly, defining it as a form of torture brings it under the rubric of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Circumcision female genital multilation october, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Moreover, since FGM is regarded as a traditional practice prejudicial to the health of children and is, in most cases, performed on minors, it Circumcision female genital multilation october the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available data from large-scale representative surveys show that the practice of FGM is highly concentrated in a swath of countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia, with wide variations in prevalence. The practice is almost universal in Somalia, Guinea and Djibouti, with levels around 90 per cent, while it affects only 1 per cent of girls and women in Cameroon and Uganda. Black pussy from south africa Altamira cave paintings facts.

Circumcision female genital multilation october

Erotic male models wanted. Female genital mutilation February All topics. At least million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries have undergone FGM.

Type I: Prevalence Available data from large-scale representative surveys show that the practice of FGM is highly concentrated in a swath of countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of Circumcision female genital multilation october Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia, with wide variations in prevalence.

Read more. Female Genital Mutilation Country Profiles. A global concern. What might the future hold? Notes on the data. Circumcision female genital multilation october important factors should be considered when examining trends in the practice: Variations in the number of years between consecutive surveys.

This can range from 1 https://maskfetish.frische.press/page7211-loqy.php up to 20, depending on the country.

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The number of data points available for each country. Patterns of change are more evident when several surveys are available, as opposed to two data sources. The retrospective periods involved that is, time lags. Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West.

Cosmetic procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction do fall within the WHO's definition of FGM, which aims to avoid loopholes, Circumcision female genital multilation october the WHO notes that these elective practices are generally not regarded as FGM. Sweden, for example, has Pictures women moroccan nude operations "on the outer female sexual organs with a view to mutilating them or bringing about some other Circumcision female genital multilation october change in them, regardless of whether or not consent has been given for the operation".

The philosopher Martha Nussbaum argues that a key concern with FGM is that it is mostly conducted on children using physical force. The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally salient, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape. Several commentators maintain that children's rights are violated not only by FGM but also by the Circumcision female genital multilation october alteration of intersex children, who are born with anomalies that physicians choose to correct.

Globally about 30 percent of males over 15 are circumcised; of these, about two-thirds are Muslim.

Female genital mutilation

WHO However, in some countries, medicalized female genital mutilation can include removal of the prepuce only Type Ia Thabet and Thabet,but this form appears to Kerala hot aunty boobs nude relatively rare Circumcision female genital multilation october et al.

Almost all known forms of female genital mutilation that remove tissue from the clitoris also cut all or part Circumcision female genital multilation october the clitoral glans itself.

Some are doing so for the first time, defying the sect's historic secrecy about cutting and taking a risk that they or relatives will be Circumcision female genital multilation october. Book XVI, chapter 4 Cantera, Angel L. The GuardianCircumcision female genital multilation october Anantnarayan, Lakshmi et al. Esther K. Hicks, Infibulation: Donaldson James, Susan 13 December ABC News. State University of New York Press,ff. Gregorio, I. Freedman, Andrew L.

May Beyond Benefits and Risks". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation.

Road sign near KapchorwaUganda External images. Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country. Downward trend. Percentage of 15—49 group who have undergone FGM in 29 countries for which figures were available in [3]. Percentage of 0—14 group who have undergone FGM in 21 countries for which figures were available in [3].

Kenyan FGM ceremony. Religious views on female genital mutilation. Spell Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya. Egyptian Doctors' Society call for ban. Sudan, under Anglo-Egyptian controlbans infibulation; the law is barely enforced. Guinean gynaecologist Aja Tounkara Diallo Fatimata begins year practice of performing fake clitoridectomies to satisfy families.

Denniston, et al eds. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': A ReaderPambazuka Press,p.

Xxx Fitted Watch Video Male hotties. In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice. Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Type For the years and country profiles: September—October The practice of female circumcision among Bohra Muslims". Manushi , 66, and Ghadially, R. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa The Custom in Question". In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town: Berlin, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton University Press. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press. Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: Zed Books. Gruenbaum, Ellen The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. Hosken, Fran []. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Cuvillier Verlag. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum. Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Nnaemeka, Obioma Female Circumcision as Impetus". Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck. Bodies and Voices: In Bertacco, Simon. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics. WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". Berer, Marge 30 June It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted". Berg, Rigmor C. BMJ Open. Health Care for Women International. Black, J. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Cutner, Lawrence P. July Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April El Dareer, A. June International Journal of Epidemiology. Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions". Is clitoridectomy in a traditional context an assault against women? Female circumcision in the U. In some countries, data have been collected through other nationally representative household surveys. After a few years, the module was modified and has been included in DHS for 23 countries to date. This is derived from self-reports. In most surveys, eligible respondents are all girls and women aged 15 to The second indicator used to report on the practice measures the extent of cutting among daughters of girls and women of reproductive age 15 to In surveys up to , female respondents who had at least one living daughter were asked about their eldest daughter: If the eldest daughter was reportedly not cut, respondents were asked if they intended to have their daughter cut. This was followed by questions about the procedure type, age at cutting and practitioner for the daughter most recently cut. As a result, prevalence estimates can be obtained for girls aged 0 to Therefore, the data on prevalence for girls under age 15 is actually an underestimation of the true extent of the practice. Since age at cutting varies among settings, the amount of underestimation also varies. That said, these data must be analysed in light of the extremely delicate and often sensitive nature of the topic. First, women may be unwilling to disclose having undergone the procedure because of the sensitivity of the topic or the illegal status of the practice in their country. However, even these data need to be interpreted with a degree of caution. Furthermore, medical and public health professionals in western Africa can use these results to identify patient subpopulations with whom they may need to address FGC practices and beliefs. Through this cross-country comparison, we were also able to highlight potential approaches for effectively reducing and eliminating this complex and deeply rooted practice. We also generated the data needed to identify subgroups of women at high risk for FGC to ensure that these strategies may be effectively implemented. Our results should be interpreted in light of some limitations. First, we used only sample characteristics that were available in all countries and those that were largely consistent across countries, limiting our ability to describe practicing communities further. Second, it is possible that FGC-related practices and attitudes may have changed since the time of data collection — ; however, we used the most recent round of data made available by the MICS for this region. Third, the data collected from Sierra Leone may not be as comparable to other data as we may have wished. Questions for Sierra Leone did not refer to female circumcision or genital cutting, but to initiation into the Bondo Society. This alternative phrasing was deemed most relevant to the practicing culture in Sierra Leone, 27 although this measurement was markedly different from that used in other countries. Fourth, responses may be subject to social desirability or recall bias, depending on the cultural context and strategies in place to eliminate FGC. Women may have been motivated to underreport circumcision and their support for the practice, particularly in countries in which legislation exists against such behaviour. Although other approaches, such as medical record reviews or examinations, 38 may have been more valid for measuring the prevalence of FGC, they were not feasible in these settings due to additional cost and time. As a result, these self-reported data across several countries were best for meeting our research objectives. Last, our analysis did not consider the type of FGC that had been experienced by the women in our samples. The type generally performed in each country, however, was not markedly different. Although action against FGC must be tempered with an understanding of the deeply rooted traditions that have allowed this practice to continue for so many generations, effective approaches for reducing FGC are critical. Despite widespread efforts, prevalence remains high in many countries, putting millions of girls at risk every year. Successful strategies for eliminating FGC are likely to require multi-pronged approaches in which political, legal and cultural elements are choreographed to effect large-scale change. Such concerted societal commitments are necessary for the benefit of future generations of women and girls. Health Topics. Why we need to talk about losing a baby. About Us. Skip to main content. Female genital cutting: Methods Study design and sample We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10 countries in western Africa using self-reported data collected between the years and during the third round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. Table 1. There is a growing tendency for physicians and other health care professionals in some countries to perform FGM because of a wish to reduce the risks involved. Some practitioners may believe that medicalization of the procedure is a step towards its eradication. Performing FGM is a breach of medical ethics and human rights, and involvement by physicians may give it credibility. In most countries performing this procedure is a violation of the law. Governments in several countries have developed legislation, such as prohibiting FGM in their criminal codes. Physicians should assist in educating health professionals and work with local community, cultural and social leaders to educate them about the adverse consequences of FGM. There are active campaigns against FGM that are led by women leaders and heads of state in Africa and elsewhere. These campaigns have issued strong statements against the practice. Physicians should cooperate with any preventive legal strategy when a child is at risk of undergoing FGM. National Medical Associations should stimulate public and professional awareness of the damaging effects of FGM. National Medical Associations should ensure that FGM education and awareness are part of its advocacy to prevent violence against women and girls. National Medical Associations should work with opinion leaders, encouraging them to become active advocates against FGM..

Female genital mutilation in the United States. Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom.

Xxxvided O3g Watch Video Live sexcam. However, even these data need to be interpreted with a degree of caution. Despite this, considerable challenges arise when examining trends, particularly when establishing a connection between programmatic activities and changes in prevalence levels over time. First, prevalence can be compared from surveys in the same country from two or more points in time. Several important factors should be considered when examining trends in the practice:. A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. Female genital mutilation February All topics. At least million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries have undergone FGM. Type I: Prevalence Available data from large-scale representative surveys show that the practice of FGM is highly concentrated in a swath of countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia, with wide variations in prevalence. Read more. Female Genital Mutilation Country Profiles. A global concern. What might the future hold? Notes on the data. Several important factors should be considered when examining trends in the practice: A Reader , Pambazuka Press, , p. Female genital mutilation in the United States. Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom. See also: Intersex medical interventions and Circumcision. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice. Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Type For the years and country profiles: September—October The practice of female circumcision among Bohra Muslims". Manushi , 66, and Ghadially, R. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa The Custom in Question". In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town: Berlin, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton University Press. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press. Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: Zed Books. Gruenbaum, Ellen The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. Hosken, Fran []. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Cuvillier Verlag. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum. Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Nnaemeka, Obioma Female Circumcision as Impetus". Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck. Bodies and Voices: In Bertacco, Simon. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics. WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". Berer, Marge 30 June It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted". Berg, Rigmor C. BMJ Open. Health Care for Women International. Black, J. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Cutner, Lawrence P. July Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April The extent of a primary procedure may vary: The majority of procedures performed are somewhere in between these two extremes. FGM has no health benefits and harms girls and women in many ways, regardless of which procedure is performed. Research shows grave permanent damage to health, including: Long-term complications include severe scarring, chronic bladder and urinary tract infections, urologic and obstetric complications, and psychological and social problems. FGM has serious consequences for sexuality and how it is experienced, including the loss of capacity for orgasm. There are also many complications during childbirth including expulsion disturbances, formation of fistulae, and traumatic tears of vulvar tissue. There are a number of reasons given for the continuation of the practice of FGM: These reasons do not justify the considerable damages to physical and mental health. None of the major religions supports this practice, which is otherwise often wrongly linked to religious beliefs. FGM is a form of violence usually perpetuated on young women and girls and represents a lack of respect for their individuality, freedom and autonomy. Physicians may be faced with parents seeking a physician to perform FGM, or they may become aware of parents who seek to take girls to places where the practice is commonly available. The lowest percentages of women believing the practice should continue were found in countries with the lowest reported rates of FGC: Prevalence estimates after excluding women who had never heard of FGC remained largely unchanged. However, the opposite effects were seen in Gambia, where being older was associated with lower odds of having been circumcised and no association was noted between having been circumcised and educational level. Furthermore, being Muslim was generally associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Effects across non-Muslim subgroups were largely similar, and the non-Muslim reference category was therefore maintained for analysis. The association between wealth and FGC varied across samples. In five countries greater wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised; in the other five, less wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Wealth was inconsistently associated with having had a daughter circumcised; these associations were similar to those seen for having been circumcised. The associations between sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes were largely unaffected by excluding from the analysis those women who had never heard of FGC. Recognizing that the frequencies of our outcomes could represent changes in the prevalence of FGC over time, we plotted the data sequentially by country Fig. In all countries, the percentage of women who had their daughters circumcised was lower than the percentage who had themselves been circumcised. The relationship between believing that FGC should continue and having had a daughter circumcised was not consistent across countries. Burkina Faso and Mauritania were the only two countries where the percentage of women who believed that FGC should continue was lower than the percentage that had had their daughters circumcised. The estimated prevalence of FGC varied widely across countries, despite their geographic proximity, and this variation probably reflects the differences in political, social and historical contexts in countries where FGC is practiced. These findings are concerning, given the potential for causing a girl severe physical and psychological harm. We also recognize that the prevalence of FGC can vary substantially within the same country. Our findings show that certain women belonging to certain subgroups based on educational level, wealth and religion have significantly increased rates of FGC. Such rates can also vary within countries depending on ethnicity and geographic region. Although these variables could have enhanced our analysis, they were excluded to maintain comparability across country models. For instance, reports of FGC are common in the southern regions of Nigeria but are substantially less frequent in its northern regions. Recognizing the diversity within countries in western Africa is particularly important for developing interventions and targeting efforts to reduce FGC. Two countries — Burkina Faso and Mauritania — stand out for having succeeded in reducing FGC and support for this practice. This is evidenced by the fact that the percentages of women who have been circumcised, who report that their daughters have been circumcised, and who believe that FGC should continue have shown steady declines. Burkina Faso, for instance, has established the National Committee to Fight against the Practice of Excision, a government-led entity that seeks to make citizens aware of the dangers of FGC and to ensure that proper law enforcement is in place to convict people who continue the practice. Although several countries have passed legislation banning FGC, Burkina Faso is the only country in which people who break this law are commonly prosecuted. However, prosecution is rare..

See also: Intersex medical interventions and Circumcision. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice. Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Circumcision female genital multilation october IV.

And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Type For the years and country profiles: September—October The practice of female circumcision among Bohra Muslims". Manushi66, and Ghadially, R. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa The Custom in Question". In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision female genital multilation october Multicultural Perspectives.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D.

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Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town: Circumcision female genital multilation october, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan.

Kamloops sex Watch Video Maputo sex. Because not all circumcised women are aware of having undergone circumcision, particularly if they have smaller incisions or were circumcised in infancy, we conducted a sensitivity analysis by repeating all analyses without including those respondents who reported never having heard of FGC, and we compared these results with our other findings. In all models we accounted for sample weighting and complex survey designs by adjusting for strata and cluster membership. Cases with missing data. The prevalence of FGC was high overall but varied substantially between countries. The lowest percentages of women believing the practice should continue were found in countries with the lowest reported rates of FGC: Prevalence estimates after excluding women who had never heard of FGC remained largely unchanged. However, the opposite effects were seen in Gambia, where being older was associated with lower odds of having been circumcised and no association was noted between having been circumcised and educational level. Furthermore, being Muslim was generally associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Effects across non-Muslim subgroups were largely similar, and the non-Muslim reference category was therefore maintained for analysis. The association between wealth and FGC varied across samples. In five countries greater wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised; in the other five, less wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Wealth was inconsistently associated with having had a daughter circumcised; these associations were similar to those seen for having been circumcised. The associations between sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes were largely unaffected by excluding from the analysis those women who had never heard of FGC. Recognizing that the frequencies of our outcomes could represent changes in the prevalence of FGC over time, we plotted the data sequentially by country Fig. In all countries, the percentage of women who had their daughters circumcised was lower than the percentage who had themselves been circumcised. The relationship between believing that FGC should continue and having had a daughter circumcised was not consistent across countries. Burkina Faso and Mauritania were the only two countries where the percentage of women who believed that FGC should continue was lower than the percentage that had had their daughters circumcised. The estimated prevalence of FGC varied widely across countries, despite their geographic proximity, and this variation probably reflects the differences in political, social and historical contexts in countries where FGC is practiced. These findings are concerning, given the potential for causing a girl severe physical and psychological harm. We also recognize that the prevalence of FGC can vary substantially within the same country. Our findings show that certain women belonging to certain subgroups based on educational level, wealth and religion have significantly increased rates of FGC. Such rates can also vary within countries depending on ethnicity and geographic region. Although these variables could have enhanced our analysis, they were excluded to maintain comparability across country models. For instance, reports of FGC are common in the southern regions of Nigeria but are substantially less frequent in its northern regions. Recognizing the diversity within countries in western Africa is particularly important for developing interventions and targeting efforts to reduce FGC. Two countries — Burkina Faso and Mauritania — stand out for having succeeded in reducing FGC and support for this practice. The element of speed and surprise is vital and the circumciser immediately grabs the clitoris by pinching it between her nails aiming to amputate it with a slash. The organ is then shown to the senior female relatives of the child who will decide whether the amount that has been removed is satisfactory or whether more is to be cut off. After the clitoris has been satisfactorily amputated Since the entire skin on the inner walls of the labia majora has to be removed all the way down to the perineum, this becomes a messy business. By now, the child is screaming, struggling, and bleeding profusely, which makes it difficult for the circumciser to hold with bare fingers and nails the slippery skin and parts that are to be cut or sutured together. Having ensured that sufficient tissue has been removed to allow the desired fusion of the skin, the circumciser pulls together the opposite sides of the labia majora, ensuring that the raw edges where the skin has been removed are well approximated. The wound is now ready to be stitched or for thorns to be applied. If a needle and thread are being used, close tight sutures will be placed to ensure that a flap of skin covers the vulva and extends from the mons veneris to the perineum, and which, after the wound heals, will form a bridge of scar tissue that will totally occlude the vaginal introitus. The amputated parts might be placed in a pouch for the girl to wear. To help the tissue bond, the girl's legs are tied together, often from hip to ankle; the bindings are usually loosened after a week and removed after two to six weeks. The vagina is opened for sexual intercourse, for the first time either by a midwife with a knife or by the woman's husband with his penis. Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. The penetration of the bride's infibulation takes anywhere from 3 or 4 days to several months. Some who are unable to penetrate their wives manage to get them pregnant in spite of the infibulation, and the woman's vaginal passage is then cut open to allow birth to take place. Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife". This creates a tear which they gradually rip more and more until the opening is sufficient to admit the penis. Type IV is "[a]ll other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes", including pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization. From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage. Girls in Uganda are told they may have difficulty giving birth without stretched labia. Gishiri cutting involves cutting the vagina's front or back wall with a blade or penknife, performed in response to infertility, obstructed labour and other conditions. In a study by Nigerian physician Mairo Usman Mandara, over 30 percent of women with gishiri cuts were found to have vesicovaginal fistulae holes that allow urine to seep into the vagina. FGM harms women's physical and emotional health throughout their lives. In the case of Type III, other factors include how small a hole was left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, whether surgical thread was used instead of agave or acacia thorns, and whether the procedure was performed more than once for example, to close an opening regarded as too wide or re-open one too small. A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IV , experience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III. The review also suggested that there was under-reporting. The practitioners' use of shared instruments is thought to aid the transmission of hepatitis B , hepatitis C and HIV , although no epidemiological studies have shown this. Late complications vary depending on the type of FGM. Urine may collect underneath the scar, leaving the area under the skin constantly wet, which can lead to infection and the formation of small stones. The opening is larger in women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue. Vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae can develop holes that allow urine or faeces to seep into the vagina. Complete obstruction of the vagina can result in hematocolpos and hematometra where the vagina and uterus fill with menstrual blood. FGM may place women at higher risk of problems during pregnancy and childbirth, which are more common with the more extensive FGM procedures. Third-degree laceration tears , anal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women. Neonatal mortality is increased. The estimate was based on a study conducted on 28, women attending delivery wards at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan. In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby: The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary tract infections and the presence of scar tissue. According to the study, FGM was associated with an increased risk to the mother of damage to the perineum and excessive blood loss , as well as a need to resuscitate the baby, and stillbirth , perhaps because of a long second stage of labour. Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. One third reported reduced sexual feelings. Aid agencies define the prevalence of FGM as the percentage of the 15—49 age group that has experienced it. Questions the women are asked during the surveys include: Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area? Was your genital area sewn? Type I is the most common form in Egypt, [74] and in the southern parts of Nigeria. In Eritrea, for example, a survey in found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinya , most of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category. FGM is mostly found in what Gerry Mackie called an "intriguingly contiguous" zone in Africa—east to west from Somalia to Senegal, and north to south from Egypt to Tanzania. Over million women and girls are thought to be living with FGM in those 30 countries. The highest concentrations among the 15—49 age group are in Somalia 98 percent , Guinea 97 percent , Djibouti 93 percent , Egypt 91 percent and Sierra Leone 90 percent. The prevalence rate for the 0—11 group in Indonesia is 49 percent Prevalence figures for the 15—19 age group and younger show a downward trend. In Somalia and Sudan the situation was reversed: FGM is not invariably a rite of passage between childhood and adulthood, but is often performed on much younger children. In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five. In Kenya, for example, the Kisi cut around age 10 and the Kamba at A country's national prevalence often reflects a high sub-national prevalence among certain ethnicities, rather than a widespread practice. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. Dahabo Musa, a Somali woman, described infibulation in a poem as the "three feminine sorrows": Like FGM, footbinding was carried out on young girls, nearly universal where practised, tied to ideas about honour, chastity and appropriate marriage, and "supported and transmitted" by women. FGM practitioners see the procedures as marking not only ethnic boundaries but also gender difference. According to this view, male circumcision defeminizes men while FGM demasculinizes women. African female symbolism revolves instead around the concept of the womb. In communities where infibulation is common, there is a preference for women's genitals to be smooth, dry and without odour, and both women and men may find the natural vulva repulsive. Common reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys are social acceptance, religion, hygiene, preservation of virginity, marriageability and enhancement of male sexual pleasure. In Sudan in , 42 percent of women who had heard of FGM said the practice should continue. Against the argument that women willingly choose FGM for their daughters, UNICEF calls the practice a "self-enforcing social convention" to which families feel they must conform to avoid uncut daughters facing social exclusion. The Zabarma girls would respond Ya, mutmura! A mutmara was a storage pit for grain that was continually opened and closed, like an infibulated woman. But despite throwing the insult back, the Zabarma girls would ask their mothers, "What's the matter? Don't we have razor blades like the Arabs? There is no mention of FGM in the Bible. A UNICEF report identified 17 African countries in which at least 10 percent of Christian women and girls aged 15 to 49 had undergone FGM; in Niger 55 percent of Christian women and girls had experienced it, compared with two percent of their Muslim counterparts. Judaism requires male circumcision, but does not allow FGM. The practice's origins are unknown. Gerry Mackie has suggested that, because FGM's east-west, north-south distribution in Africa meets in Sudan, infibulation may have begun there with the Meroite civilization c. The spell was found on the sarcophagus of Sit-hedjhotep, now in the Egyptian Museum , and dates to Egypt's Middle Kingdom. O'Rourke argues that ' m't probably refers instead to a menstruating woman. The examination of mummies has shown no evidence of FGM. Citing the Australian pathologist Grafton Elliot Smith , who examined hundreds of mummies in the early 20th century, Knight writes that the genital area may resemble Type III because during mummification the skin of the outer labia was pulled toward the anus to cover the pudendal cleft , possibly to prevent sexual violation. It was similarly not possible to determine whether Types I or II had been performed, because soft tissues had deteriorated or been removed by the embalmers. The Greek geographer Strabo c. The surgery is performed in this way: Have the girl sit on a chair while a muscled young man standing behind her places his arms below the girl's thighs. Have him separate and steady her legs and whole body. Standing in front and taking hold of the clitoris with a broad-mouthed forceps in his left hand, the surgeon stretches it outward, while with the right hand, he cuts it off at the point next to the pincers of the forceps. It is proper to let a length remain from that cut off, about the size of the membrane that's between the nostrils, so as to take away the excess material only; as I have said, the part to be removed is at that point just above the pincers of the forceps. Because the clitoris is a skinlike structure and stretches out excessively, do not cut off too much, as a urinary fistula may result from cutting such large growths too deeply. The genital area was then cleaned with a sponge, frankincense powder and wine or cold water, and wrapped in linen bandages dipped in vinegar, until the seventh day when calamine , rose petals, date pits or a "genital powder made from baked clay" might be applied. Whatever the practice's origins, infibulation became linked to slavery. Thus, Mackie argues, a "practice associated with shameful female slavery came to stand for honor". Gynaecologists in 19th-century Europe and the United States removed the clitoris to treat insanity and masturbation. Mary's Hospital , believed that masturbation, or "unnatural irritation" of the clitoris, caused hysteria , spinal irritation, fits, idiocy, mania and death. Marion Sims followed Brown's work and in slit the neck of a woman's uterus and amputated her clitoris, "for the relief of the nervous or hysterical condition as recommended by Baker Brown". Later in the 19th century, A. Bloch, a surgeon in New Orleans, removed the clitoris of a two-year-old girl who was reportedly masturbating. From until , he performed "love surgery" by cutting women's pubococcygeus muscle , repositioning the vagina and urethra, and removing the clitoral hood, thereby making their genital area more appropriate, in his view, for intercourse in the missionary position. Little knives in their sheaths That they may fight with the church, The time has come. Elders of the church When Kenyatta comes You will be given women's clothes And you will have to cook him his food. An important ethnic marker, the practice was known by the Kikuyu , the country's main ethnic group, as irua for both girls and boys. It involved excision Type II for girls and removal of the foreskin for boys. Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts. Jomo Kenyatta , general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association and later Kenya's first prime minister, wrote in that, for the Kikuyu, the institution of FGM was the " conditio sine qua non of the whole teaching of tribal law, religion and morality". No proper Kikuyu man or woman would marry or have sexual relations with someone who was not circumcised. A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation. Her age and place within tribal history was traced to that day, and the group of girls with whom she was cut was named according to current events, an oral tradition that allowed the Kikuyu to track people and events going back hundreds of years. The CSM announced that Africans practising it would be excommunicated, which resulted in hundreds leaving or being expelled. In the Kenya Missionary Council began referring to FGM as the "sexual mutilation of women", rather than circumcision, and a person's stance toward the practice became a test of loyalty, either to the Christian churches or to the Kikuyu Central Association. Edward Grigg , the governor of Kenya , told the British Colonial Office that the killer, who was never identified, had tried to circumcise her. Over the next three years, thousands of girls cut each other's genitals with razor blades as a symbol of defiance. The movement came to be known as Ngaitana "I will circumcise myself" , because to avoid naming their friends the girls said they had cut themselves. Historian Lynn Thomas described the episode as significant in the history of FGM because it made clear that its victims were also its perpetrators. Scottish missionaries require Kikuyu Christians to take an oath against FGM; most leave to form their own churches. Late s: Egypt bans infibulation in state-run hospitals; allows partial clitoridectomy if parents request it. Saadawi's The Naked Face of Women describes her own circumcision. United Nations International Women's Year. Fran Hosken publishes The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , the first to estimate global figures. Robin Morgan and Gloria Steinem call it "female genital mutilation" in Ms magazine. French Association of Anthropologists publishes statement that "a certain feminism resuscitates today the moralistic arrogance of yesterday's colonialism. Type III: Type IV: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: FGM is condemned by a number of international treaties and conventions, as well as by national legislation in many countries. Similarly, defining it as a form of torture brings it under the rubric of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Moreover, since FGM is regarded as a traditional practice prejudicial to the health of children and is, in most cases, performed on minors, it violates the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available data from large-scale representative surveys show that the practice of FGM is highly concentrated in a swath of countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia, with wide variations in prevalence. The practice is almost universal in Somalia, Guinea and Djibouti, with levels around 90 per cent, while it affects only 1 per cent of girls and women in Cameroon and Uganda. However, FGM is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. Evidence suggests that FGM exists in places including Colombia [2] , India [3] , Malaysia [4] , Oman [5] , Saudi Arabia [6] and the United Arab Emirates [7] , with large variations in terms of the type performed, circumstances surrounding the practice and size of the affected population groups. In these contexts, however, the available evidence comes from sometimes outdated small-scale studies or anecdotal accounts, and there are no representative data as yet on prevalence. The practice is also found in pockets of Europe and in Australia and North America which, for the last several decades, have been destinations for migrants from countries where the practice still occurs [8]. The highest levels of support can be found in Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, the Gambia, Somalia and Egypt where more than half of the female population thinks the practice should continue. However, in most countries in Africa and the Middle East with representative data on attitudes 21 out of 29 , the majority of girls and women think it should end. Overall, the practice of FGM has been declining over the last three decades. In the 30 countries with nationally representative prevalence data, around 1 in 3 girls aged 15 to 19 today have undergone the practice versus 1 in 2 in the mids. As a result of migration a growing number of girls living outside countries where the practice is common are being affected. Respecting the social norms of immigrants is increasingly posing problems for physicians and the wider community. Because of its impact on the physical and mental health of women and children, and because it is a violation of human rights, FGM is a matter of concern to physicians. Physicians worldwide are confronted with the effects of this traditional practice. The extent of a primary procedure may vary: The majority of procedures performed are somewhere in between these two extremes. FGM has no health benefits and harms girls and women in many ways, regardless of which procedure is performed. Research shows grave permanent damage to health, including: Long-term complications include severe scarring, chronic bladder and urinary tract infections, urologic and obstetric complications, and psychological and social problems. FGM has serious consequences for sexuality and how it is experienced, including the loss of capacity for orgasm. There are also many complications during childbirth including expulsion disturbances, formation of fistulae, and traumatic tears of vulvar tissue. There are a number of reasons given for the continuation of the practice of FGM:.

Princeton University Press. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Circumcision female genital multilation october Press. Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: Zed Books. Gruenbaum, Ellen The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. Hosken, Fran []. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church.

Cuvillier Verlag.

Classic Fucking Watch Video Bigblack xxx. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. Dahabo Musa, a Somali woman, described infibulation in a poem as the "three feminine sorrows": Like FGM, footbinding was carried out on young girls, nearly universal where practised, tied to ideas about honour, chastity and appropriate marriage, and "supported and transmitted" by women. FGM practitioners see the procedures as marking not only ethnic boundaries but also gender difference. According to this view, male circumcision defeminizes men while FGM demasculinizes women. African female symbolism revolves instead around the concept of the womb. In communities where infibulation is common, there is a preference for women's genitals to be smooth, dry and without odour, and both women and men may find the natural vulva repulsive. Common reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys are social acceptance, religion, hygiene, preservation of virginity, marriageability and enhancement of male sexual pleasure. In Sudan in , 42 percent of women who had heard of FGM said the practice should continue. Against the argument that women willingly choose FGM for their daughters, UNICEF calls the practice a "self-enforcing social convention" to which families feel they must conform to avoid uncut daughters facing social exclusion. The Zabarma girls would respond Ya, mutmura! A mutmara was a storage pit for grain that was continually opened and closed, like an infibulated woman. But despite throwing the insult back, the Zabarma girls would ask their mothers, "What's the matter? Don't we have razor blades like the Arabs? There is no mention of FGM in the Bible. A UNICEF report identified 17 African countries in which at least 10 percent of Christian women and girls aged 15 to 49 had undergone FGM; in Niger 55 percent of Christian women and girls had experienced it, compared with two percent of their Muslim counterparts. Judaism requires male circumcision, but does not allow FGM. The practice's origins are unknown. Gerry Mackie has suggested that, because FGM's east-west, north-south distribution in Africa meets in Sudan, infibulation may have begun there with the Meroite civilization c. The spell was found on the sarcophagus of Sit-hedjhotep, now in the Egyptian Museum , and dates to Egypt's Middle Kingdom. O'Rourke argues that ' m't probably refers instead to a menstruating woman. The examination of mummies has shown no evidence of FGM. Citing the Australian pathologist Grafton Elliot Smith , who examined hundreds of mummies in the early 20th century, Knight writes that the genital area may resemble Type III because during mummification the skin of the outer labia was pulled toward the anus to cover the pudendal cleft , possibly to prevent sexual violation. It was similarly not possible to determine whether Types I or II had been performed, because soft tissues had deteriorated or been removed by the embalmers. The Greek geographer Strabo c. The surgery is performed in this way: Have the girl sit on a chair while a muscled young man standing behind her places his arms below the girl's thighs. Have him separate and steady her legs and whole body. Standing in front and taking hold of the clitoris with a broad-mouthed forceps in his left hand, the surgeon stretches it outward, while with the right hand, he cuts it off at the point next to the pincers of the forceps. It is proper to let a length remain from that cut off, about the size of the membrane that's between the nostrils, so as to take away the excess material only; as I have said, the part to be removed is at that point just above the pincers of the forceps. Because the clitoris is a skinlike structure and stretches out excessively, do not cut off too much, as a urinary fistula may result from cutting such large growths too deeply. The genital area was then cleaned with a sponge, frankincense powder and wine or cold water, and wrapped in linen bandages dipped in vinegar, until the seventh day when calamine , rose petals, date pits or a "genital powder made from baked clay" might be applied. Whatever the practice's origins, infibulation became linked to slavery. Thus, Mackie argues, a "practice associated with shameful female slavery came to stand for honor". Gynaecologists in 19th-century Europe and the United States removed the clitoris to treat insanity and masturbation. Mary's Hospital , believed that masturbation, or "unnatural irritation" of the clitoris, caused hysteria , spinal irritation, fits, idiocy, mania and death. Marion Sims followed Brown's work and in slit the neck of a woman's uterus and amputated her clitoris, "for the relief of the nervous or hysterical condition as recommended by Baker Brown". Later in the 19th century, A. Bloch, a surgeon in New Orleans, removed the clitoris of a two-year-old girl who was reportedly masturbating. From until , he performed "love surgery" by cutting women's pubococcygeus muscle , repositioning the vagina and urethra, and removing the clitoral hood, thereby making their genital area more appropriate, in his view, for intercourse in the missionary position. Little knives in their sheaths That they may fight with the church, The time has come. Elders of the church When Kenyatta comes You will be given women's clothes And you will have to cook him his food. An important ethnic marker, the practice was known by the Kikuyu , the country's main ethnic group, as irua for both girls and boys. It involved excision Type II for girls and removal of the foreskin for boys. Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts. Jomo Kenyatta , general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association and later Kenya's first prime minister, wrote in that, for the Kikuyu, the institution of FGM was the " conditio sine qua non of the whole teaching of tribal law, religion and morality". No proper Kikuyu man or woman would marry or have sexual relations with someone who was not circumcised. A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation. Her age and place within tribal history was traced to that day, and the group of girls with whom she was cut was named according to current events, an oral tradition that allowed the Kikuyu to track people and events going back hundreds of years. The CSM announced that Africans practising it would be excommunicated, which resulted in hundreds leaving or being expelled. In the Kenya Missionary Council began referring to FGM as the "sexual mutilation of women", rather than circumcision, and a person's stance toward the practice became a test of loyalty, either to the Christian churches or to the Kikuyu Central Association. Edward Grigg , the governor of Kenya , told the British Colonial Office that the killer, who was never identified, had tried to circumcise her. Over the next three years, thousands of girls cut each other's genitals with razor blades as a symbol of defiance. The movement came to be known as Ngaitana "I will circumcise myself" , because to avoid naming their friends the girls said they had cut themselves. Historian Lynn Thomas described the episode as significant in the history of FGM because it made clear that its victims were also its perpetrators. Scottish missionaries require Kikuyu Christians to take an oath against FGM; most leave to form their own churches. Late s: Egypt bans infibulation in state-run hospitals; allows partial clitoridectomy if parents request it. Saadawi's The Naked Face of Women describes her own circumcision. United Nations International Women's Year. Fran Hosken publishes The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , the first to estimate global figures. Robin Morgan and Gloria Steinem call it "female genital mutilation" in Ms magazine. French Association of Anthropologists publishes statement that "a certain feminism resuscitates today the moralistic arrogance of yesterday's colonialism. Circumcision and its Consequences. Circumcision and Infibulation of Women in Africa. Infibulation was banned there in , but the law was unpopular and barely enforced. Women in the Arab World , which described her own clitoridectomy when she was six years old:. I did not know what they had cut off from my body, and I did not try to find out. I just wept, and called out to my mother for help. But the worst shock of all was when I looked around and found her standing by my side. Yes, it was her, I could not be mistaken, in flesh and blood, right in the midst of these strangers, talking to them and smiling at them, as though they had not participated in slaughtering her daughter just a few moments ago. In , Rose Oldfield Hayes, an American social scientist, became the first female academic to publish a detailed account of FGM, aided by her ability to discuss it directly with women in Sudan. Her article in American Ethnologist called it "female genital mutilation", rather than female circumcision, and brought it to wider academic attention. Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females , [15] the first to offer global figures. She estimated that ,, women in 20 African countries had experienced FGM. The conference listed FGM as a form of violence against women , marking it as a human-rights violation, rather than a medical issue. Immigration spread the practice to Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America, all of which outlawed it entirely or restricted it to consenting adults. In the United States an estimated , women and girls had experienced FGM or were at risk as of Canada recognized FGM as a form of persecution in July , when it granted refugee status to Khadra Hassan Farah, who had fled Somalia to avoid her daughter being cut. Canadian officials have expressed concern that a few thousand Canadian girls are at risk of "vacation cutting", whereby girls are taken overseas to undergo the procedure, but as of there were no firm figures. According to Colette Gallard, a family-planning counsellor, when FGM was first encountered in France, the reaction was that Westerners ought not to intervene. It took the deaths of two girls in , one of them three months old, for that attitude to change. Around , women and girls living in England and Wales were born in countries where FGM is practised, as of Both men were acquitted in Anthropologists have accused FGM eradicationists of cultural colonialism , and have been criticized in turn for their moral relativism and failure to defend the idea of universal human rights. Africans who object to the tone of FGM opposition risk appearing to defend the practice. The feminist theorist Obioma Nnaemeka , herself strongly opposed to FGM, argued in that renaming the practice female genital mutilation had introduced "a subtext of barbaric African and Muslim cultures and the West's relevance even indispensability in purging [it]". African feminists "take strong exception to the imperialist, racist and dehumanising infantilization of African women", she wrote in Examples include images of women's vaginas after FGM or girls undergoing the procedure. The debate has highlighted a tension between anthropology and feminism, with the former's focus on tolerance and the latter's on equal rights for women. According to the anthropologist Christine Walley, a common position in anti-FGM literature has been to present African women as victims of false consciousness participating in their own oppression, a position promoted by feminists in the s and s, including Fran Hosken, Mary Daly and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein. Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West. Cosmetic procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction do fall within the WHO's definition of FGM, which aims to avoid loopholes, but the WHO notes that these elective practices are generally not regarded as FGM. Sweden, for example, has banned operations "on the outer female sexual organs with a view to mutilating them or bringing about some other permanent change in them, regardless of whether or not consent has been given for the operation". The philosopher Martha Nussbaum argues that a key concern with FGM is that it is mostly conducted on children using physical force. The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally salient, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape. Several commentators maintain that children's rights are violated not only by FGM but also by the genital alteration of intersex children, who are born with anomalies that physicians choose to correct. Globally about 30 percent of males over 15 are circumcised; of these, about two-thirds are Muslim. WHO However, in some countries, medicalized female genital mutilation can include removal of the prepuce only Type Ia Thabet and Thabet, , but this form appears to be relatively rare Satti et al. Almost all known forms of female genital mutilation that remove tissue from the clitoris also cut all or part of the clitoral glans itself. Some are doing so for the first time, defying the sect's historic secrecy about cutting and taking a risk that they or relatives will be ostracized. Book XVI, chapter 4 , Cantera, Angel L. The Guardian , citing Anantnarayan, Lakshmi et al. Esther K. Hicks, Infibulation: Donaldson James, Susan 13 December ABC News. State University of New York Press, , ff. Gregorio, I. Freedman, Andrew L. May Beyond Benefits and Risks". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation. Road sign near Kapchorwa , Uganda , External images. Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country. Downward trend. Since age at cutting varies among settings, the amount of underestimation also varies. That said, these data must be analysed in light of the extremely delicate and often sensitive nature of the topic. First, women may be unwilling to disclose having undergone the procedure because of the sensitivity of the topic or the illegal status of the practice in their country. However, even these data need to be interpreted with a degree of caution. Despite this, considerable challenges arise when examining trends, particularly when establishing a connection between programmatic activities and changes in prevalence levels over time. First, prevalence can be compared from surveys in the same country from two or more points in time. Several important factors should be considered when examining trends in the practice:. A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. Female genital mutilation February All topics. At least million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries have undergone FGM. Type I: Prevalence Available data from large-scale representative surveys show that the practice of FGM is highly concentrated in a swath of countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia, with wide variations in prevalence. Read more. Female Genital Mutilation Country Profiles. A global concern. Furthermore, being Muslim was generally associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Effects across non-Muslim subgroups were largely similar, and the non-Muslim reference category was therefore maintained for analysis. The association between wealth and FGC varied across samples. In five countries greater wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised; in the other five, less wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Wealth was inconsistently associated with having had a daughter circumcised; these associations were similar to those seen for having been circumcised. The associations between sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes were largely unaffected by excluding from the analysis those women who had never heard of FGC. Recognizing that the frequencies of our outcomes could represent changes in the prevalence of FGC over time, we plotted the data sequentially by country Fig. In all countries, the percentage of women who had their daughters circumcised was lower than the percentage who had themselves been circumcised. The relationship between believing that FGC should continue and having had a daughter circumcised was not consistent across countries. Burkina Faso and Mauritania were the only two countries where the percentage of women who believed that FGC should continue was lower than the percentage that had had their daughters circumcised. The estimated prevalence of FGC varied widely across countries, despite their geographic proximity, and this variation probably reflects the differences in political, social and historical contexts in countries where FGC is practiced. These findings are concerning, given the potential for causing a girl severe physical and psychological harm. We also recognize that the prevalence of FGC can vary substantially within the same country. Our findings show that certain women belonging to certain subgroups based on educational level, wealth and religion have significantly increased rates of FGC. Such rates can also vary within countries depending on ethnicity and geographic region. Although these variables could have enhanced our analysis, they were excluded to maintain comparability across country models. For instance, reports of FGC are common in the southern regions of Nigeria but are substantially less frequent in its northern regions. Recognizing the diversity within countries in western Africa is particularly important for developing interventions and targeting efforts to reduce FGC. Two countries — Burkina Faso and Mauritania — stand out for having succeeded in reducing FGC and support for this practice. This is evidenced by the fact that the percentages of women who have been circumcised, who report that their daughters have been circumcised, and who believe that FGC should continue have shown steady declines. Burkina Faso, for instance, has established the National Committee to Fight against the Practice of Excision, a government-led entity that seeks to make citizens aware of the dangers of FGC and to ensure that proper law enforcement is in place to convict people who continue the practice. Although several countries have passed legislation banning FGC, Burkina Faso is the only country in which people who break this law are commonly prosecuted. However, prosecution is rare. Based on the efforts and outcomes in both Burkina Faso and Mauritania, we postulate that four components are necessary for effectively reducing FGC practice and support. These include: First, community education and awareness can enable and facilitate affected communities to promote positive attitudes towards discontinuing the practice. Physicians may be faced with parents seeking a physician to perform FGM, or they may become aware of parents who seek to take girls to places where the practice is commonly available. They must be prepared to intervene to protect the girl. Medical associations should prepare guidance on how to manage these requests which may include invoking local laws that protect children from harm and may include involving police and other agencies. They should be confident in handling such requests and supported with appropriate educational material that will enable them to discuss with the patient the medically approved option of repairing the damage done by FGM and by childbirth. There is a growing tendency for physicians and other health care professionals in some countries to perform FGM because of a wish to reduce the risks involved. Some practitioners may believe that medicalization of the procedure is a step towards its eradication. Performing FGM is a breach of medical ethics and human rights, and involvement by physicians may give it credibility. In most countries performing this procedure is a violation of the law. Governments in several countries have developed legislation, such as prohibiting FGM in their criminal codes. Physicians should assist in educating health professionals and work with local community, cultural and social leaders to educate them about the adverse consequences of FGM. There are active campaigns against FGM that are led by women leaders and heads of state in Africa and elsewhere. These campaigns have issued strong statements against the practice..

Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum.

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Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change.

Lynne Rienner Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Nnaemeka, Obioma Female Circumcision as Impetus".

Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment.

There is a growing tendency for physicians and other health care professionals in some countries to perform FGM because of a wish to reduce the risks involved. Circumcision female genital multilation october practitioners may believe that medicalization of the procedure is a step towards its eradication. Performing FGM is a breach of medical ethics and human rights, and involvement by physicians may give it credibility.

In most countries performing this procedure is a violation of the law. Governments in several countries have Circumcision female genital multilation october legislation, such as prohibiting FGM in their criminal codes. Physicians should assist in educating health professionals and work with local community, cultural and social leaders to educate them about the adverse consequences of FGM. There are active campaigns against FGM that are led by women leaders and heads of state in Africa and elsewhere.

These campaigns have issued strong statements against the practice. Physicians should cooperate with any preventive legal strategy when a child is at risk of undergoing FGM. National Medical Associations should stimulate public and professional awareness of the damaging effects of FGM. National Medical Associations should ensure that FGM education and awareness are part of its advocacy to prevent violence against women and girls. National Medical Associations should work with opinion leaders, encouraging them to become active advocates against FGM.

Households were systematically sampled https://clothedsex.frische.press/num3493-xaw.php each enumeration area. Total sample size varied by country. We examined three primary outcome measures.

If yes, how many? For analysis, this variable was dichotomized into yes at least 1 daughter circumcised versus no no daughters circumcised.

Have you ever heard about this practice? For analysis, this third variable was collapsed into two categories: Participants who had not heard of FGC were coded as missing for this outcome. Our independent variables included basic sociodemographic characteristics that were available across all countries, including age 5-year age groupsCircumcision female genital multilation october level none, primary, above primarymarital status currently married, formerly married, never marriedwealth quintile and religion Muslim versus non-Muslim.

Subgroups of non-Muslims were examined for differential effects. Wealth quintiles were derived by the MICS using a combination of reported household assets and utility Circumcision female genital multilation october.

Analyses were performed separately for each country. We first generated weighted frequencies to determine the prevalence of the three outcomes and to describe the characteristics of the sample populations. We then examined the potential for multicollinearity among the independent variables by Circumcision female genital multilation october an average threshold correlation coefficient of 0.

We constructed logistic regression models for each outcome, including all sociodemographic Circumcision female genital multilation october, whether or not they significantly contributed to the model.

This approach was used to ensure the comparability of the models across countries. Because not all circumcised women are aware of having undergone circumcision, particularly if they have smaller incisions or were circumcised in infancy, we conducted a sensitivity analysis by repeating all analyses without including those respondents who reported never having heard of FGC, and we compared these results with our other findings. In all models we accounted for sample weighting and complex survey designs by adjusting for strata and cluster membership.

Cases Circumcision female genital multilation october click at this page data. The prevalence of FGC was high overall but varied substantially between countries. The lowest percentages of women believing the practice should continue were found in countries with the lowest reported rates of FGC: Prevalence estimates after excluding women who had never heard of FGC remained largely unchanged.

New Xxxvds Watch Video Sex bicycle. Western Africa is also particularly well suited for cross-national comparisons because substantial differences exist between countries in prevalence rates and in the approaches used to eliminate this practice. These differences can bring to light potential strategies that may be useful in similar settings. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of FGC practices and beliefs across all western African countries for which national data were available from the most recent round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. We also aimed to identify correlates of these practices and beliefs to identify high-risk subpopulations. This evidence may be useful to help better understand country-level variation in this persistent but widely criticized practice 1 , 23 , 24 and to target efforts to rid future generations of the practice of FGC in western Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10 countries in western Africa using self-reported data collected between the years and during the third round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. Surveys were conducted in French in all countries except Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, where they were conducted in English. Households were systematically sampled from each enumeration area. Total sample size varied by country. We examined three primary outcome measures. If yes, how many? For analysis, this variable was dichotomized into yes at least 1 daughter circumcised versus no no daughters circumcised. Have you ever heard about this practice? For analysis, this third variable was collapsed into two categories: Participants who had not heard of FGC were coded as missing for this outcome. Our independent variables included basic sociodemographic characteristics that were available across all countries, including age 5-year age groups , educational level none, primary, above primary , marital status currently married, formerly married, never married , wealth quintile and religion Muslim versus non-Muslim. Subgroups of non-Muslims were examined for differential effects. Wealth quintiles were derived by the MICS using a combination of reported household assets and utility services. Analyses were performed separately for each country. We first generated weighted frequencies to determine the prevalence of the three outcomes and to describe the characteristics of the sample populations. We then examined the potential for multicollinearity among the independent variables by using an average threshold correlation coefficient of 0. We constructed logistic regression models for each outcome, including all sociodemographic characteristics, whether or not they significantly contributed to the model. This approach was used to ensure the comparability of the models across countries. Because not all circumcised women are aware of having undergone circumcision, particularly if they have smaller incisions or were circumcised in infancy, we conducted a sensitivity analysis by repeating all analyses without including those respondents who reported never having heard of FGC, and we compared these results with our other findings. In all models we accounted for sample weighting and complex survey designs by adjusting for strata and cluster membership. Cases with missing data. In some countries, data have been collected through other nationally representative household surveys. After a few years, the module was modified and has been included in DHS for 23 countries to date. This is derived from self-reports. In most surveys, eligible respondents are all girls and women aged 15 to The second indicator used to report on the practice measures the extent of cutting among daughters of girls and women of reproductive age 15 to In surveys up to , female respondents who had at least one living daughter were asked about their eldest daughter: If the eldest daughter was reportedly not cut, respondents were asked if they intended to have their daughter cut. This was followed by questions about the procedure type, age at cutting and practitioner for the daughter most recently cut. As a result, prevalence estimates can be obtained for girls aged 0 to Therefore, the data on prevalence for girls under age 15 is actually an underestimation of the true extent of the practice. Since age at cutting varies among settings, the amount of underestimation also varies. That said, these data must be analysed in light of the extremely delicate and often sensitive nature of the topic. First, women may be unwilling to disclose having undergone the procedure because of the sensitivity of the topic or the illegal status of the practice in their country. However, even these data need to be interpreted with a degree of caution. Despite this, considerable challenges arise when examining trends, particularly when establishing a connection between programmatic activities and changes in prevalence levels over time. First, prevalence can be compared from surveys in the same country from two or more points in time. There are active campaigns against FGM that are led by women leaders and heads of state in Africa and elsewhere. These campaigns have issued strong statements against the practice. Physicians should cooperate with any preventive legal strategy when a child is at risk of undergoing FGM. National Medical Associations should stimulate public and professional awareness of the damaging effects of FGM. National Medical Associations should ensure that FGM education and awareness are part of its advocacy to prevent violence against women and girls. National Medical Associations should work with opinion leaders, encouraging them to become active advocates against FGM. This should include sustained advocacy programmes and the development of legislation prohibiting FGM. NMAs must prohibit involvement by physicians in the practice of FGM, including re-infibulation after childbirth. Physicians should be encouraged to perform reconstructive surgery on women who have undergone FGM. Physicians should seek to ensure the provision of adequate and non-judgemental medical and psychological care for women who have undergone FGM. Physicians should be aware that the risk of FGM might be a justification for overriding patient confidentiality, and allow disclosure to social or other relevant services to protect a child from serious harm. Policy Types Statement. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice. Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Type For the years and country profiles: September—October The practice of female circumcision among Bohra Muslims". Manushi , 66, and Ghadially, R. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa The Custom in Question". In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town: Berlin, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton University Press. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press. Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: Zed Books. Gruenbaum, Ellen The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. Hosken, Fran []. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Cuvillier Verlag. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum. Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Nnaemeka, Obioma Female Circumcision as Impetus". Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck. Bodies and Voices: In Bertacco, Simon. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics. WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". Berer, Marge 30 June It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted". Berg, Rigmor C. BMJ Open. Health Care for Women International. Black, J. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Cutner, Lawrence P. July Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April El Dareer, A. June International Journal of Epidemiology. Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October .

Circumcision female genital multilation october, the opposite effects were seen in Gambia, where being older was associated with lower odds of having been circumcised and no association was noted between having been circumcised and educational level. Furthermore, being Muslim was generally associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Effects across non-Muslim subgroups were largely similar, and the non-Muslim reference category was therefore maintained for analysis.

The association between wealth and FGC varied across samples. Mature big tit wife.

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Correspondence to Heather L Sipsma e-mail: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; These beliefs are strongly rooted in tradition, culture and religion, but none carries a scientific basis.

When accompanied by excessive bleeding, it can even lead Circumcision female genital multilation october death.

Despite the risks associated with FGC, the peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence and predictors of FGC is sparse.

Circumcision female genital multilation october

Such data would be helpful for understanding the variation in the frequency of FGC, particularly in western Africa, where more info practice is known to be common despite legislation and other efforts to curb its prevalence.

Western Africa is also particularly well suited for cross-national comparisons because substantial differences exist between countries in prevalence rates and in the approaches used to eliminate this practice. These differences can bring to light potential strategies that may be useful in similar settings.

Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of FGC practices and beliefs across all Circumcision female genital multilation october African countries for which national data were available from the most recent round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS.

We also aimed to identify correlates of these practices and beliefs to identify high-risk subpopulations. This evidence may be useful to help better understand country-level variation in this persistent but widely criticized practice 12324 and to target efforts to rid future generations of the practice of FGC in western Africa.

We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10 countries in western Africa using self-reported data collected between the years and click the third round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. Surveys were conducted in French in all countries except Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, where they were conducted in English.

Households were systematically sampled from each enumeration area. Total sample size varied by country. We examined three primary outcome measures. If yes, how many? For analysis, this variable was dichotomized into yes at least 1 daughter circumcised versus no no daughters circumcised.

Have you ever heard about this practice? For analysis, this third variable was collapsed into two categories: Participants who had not heard of FGC were coded as missing for this outcome. Our independent variables included basic sociodemographic characteristics that were available across all countries, including age 5-year age groupseducational level none, primary, above primarymarital status currently married, formerly married, never marriedwealth quintile and religion Muslim versus non-Muslim.

Subgroups of non-Muslims were examined for differential effects. Wealth continue reading were derived by the MICS using a combination Circumcision female genital multilation october reported household assets and utility services.

Analyses were performed separately for each country. We first generated weighted frequencies to determine the Circumcision female genital multilation october of the three outcomes and to describe the characteristics of the sample populations. We then examined the potential Circumcision female genital multilation october multicollinearity among the independent variables by using an average threshold correlation coefficient of 0.

We constructed logistic regression models for each outcome, including all sociodemographic characteristics, whether see more not they significantly contributed to the model. This approach was used to ensure the comparability of the models across countries.

Because not all circumcised women are aware of having undergone circumcision, particularly if they have smaller incisions or were circumcised in infancy, we conducted a sensitivity analysis by repeating all analyses without including those respondents who reported never having heard of FGC, and we compared these results with our other findings. In all models we accounted for sample weighting and complex survey designs by Circumcision female genital multilation october for strata and cluster membership.

Cases with missing data. The prevalence of FGC was high overall but varied substantially between countries. The lowest percentages of women believing the practice should continue were found in countries with the lowest reported rates of FGC: Prevalence estimates after excluding women who had never heard of FGC remained largely unchanged.

However, the opposite effects were seen in Gambia, where being older was associated with lower odds of having been circumcised and no association was noted between having been circumcised and educational level.

Furthermore, being Muslim was generally associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Effects across non-Muslim subgroups were largely similar, and the non-Muslim reference please click for source was therefore maintained for analysis. The association between wealth and FGC varied across samples.

In five countries greater wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised; in the other five, less wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised.

Wealth was inconsistently associated with having had a daughter circumcised; these associations were similar to those seen for having been circumcised.

The source between sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes were largely unaffected by excluding from the analysis those women who had never heard of FGC. Recognizing that the frequencies of our outcomes could represent changes in the prevalence of FGC over time, we plotted the data sequentially by country Fig.

In all countries, the percentage of women who had their Circumcision female genital multilation october circumcised was lower than the percentage who had themselves been circumcised. The relationship between believing that FGC should continue and having had a daughter circumcised was not consistent across countries.

Burkina Faso and Mauritania were the only two countries where the percentage of women who believed that FGC should continue was lower than the percentage that had had their daughters circumcised.

The estimated prevalence of FGC varied widely across countries, despite their geographic proximity, and this variation probably reflects the differences in political, social and historical contexts in countries where FGC is practiced. These findings are concerning, given the potential for causing a girl severe physical and psychological harm. We also recognize that the prevalence of FGC can vary substantially within the same country. Our findings show that certain women belonging to certain subgroups based on educational level, wealth and religion have significantly increased rates of FGC.

Such rates can also vary Circumcision female genital multilation october countries depending on ethnicity and geographic region. Although these variables could have enhanced our analysis, they were excluded to maintain comparability across country models.

For instance, reports of FGC are common in the southern regions of Nigeria but are substantially less frequent in its northern regions. Recognizing the diversity within countries in western Africa is particularly important for developing interventions and Circumcision female genital multilation october efforts to reduce FGC. Two countries — Burkina Faso and Mauritania — stand out for having succeeded in reducing FGC and support for this practice.

This is evidenced by the fact that the percentages of women who have been circumcised, who report that their daughters have been circumcised, and who believe that FGC should continue have shown Circumcision female genital multilation october declines.

Burkina Faso, for instance, has established the National Committee to Fight against the Practice of Excision, a government-led entity that seeks to make citizens aware of the dangers of FGC and to ensure that proper law Circumcision female genital multilation october is in Circumcision female genital multilation october to convict Circumcision female genital multilation october who continue the practice.

Although several countries have passed legislation banning FGC, Burkina Faso is the only country in which people who break this law are commonly prosecuted. However, prosecution is rare. Based on the efforts and outcomes in both Burkina Faso and Mauritania, we postulate that four components are necessary for effectively Circumcision female genital multilation october FGC practice and support. These include: First, community education and awareness can enable and facilitate affected communities to promote positive attitudes towards discontinuing the practice.

Our results suggest subpopulations in each country where efforts could be targeted. For instance, older ages were consistently associated with the practice of FGC. The FGC practices of Circumcision female genital multilation october women may be a result of past societal norms, including pressure from family members or spouses, even if they did not support the practice. Conversely, younger ages were more likely to believe the practice should continue, possibly because many may not yet Circumcision female genital multilation october had to consider circumcising their own daughter.

Circumcision female genital multilation october

nude grandpa Watch Video Sexe Vintage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation. Road sign near Kapchorwa , Uganda , External images. Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country. Downward trend. Percentage of 15—49 group who have undergone FGM in 29 countries for which figures were available in [3]. Percentage of 0—14 group who have undergone FGM in 21 countries for which figures were available in [3]. Kenyan FGM ceremony. Religious views on female genital mutilation. Spell Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya. Egyptian Doctors' Society call for ban. Sudan, under Anglo-Egyptian control , bans infibulation; the law is barely enforced. Guinean gynaecologist Aja Tounkara Diallo Fatimata begins year practice of performing fake clitoridectomies to satisfy families. Denniston, et al eds. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': A Reader , Pambazuka Press, , p. Female genital mutilation in the United States. Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom. See also: Intersex medical interventions and Circumcision. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice. Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV. And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. Type For the years and country profiles: September—October The practice of female circumcision among Bohra Muslims". Manushi , 66, and Ghadially, R. Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa The Custom in Question". In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Cape Town: Berlin, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton University Press. Wombs and Alien Spirits: University of Wisconsin Press. Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma Woman, Why Do You Weep: Zed Books. Gruenbaum, Ellen The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective. Hosken, Fran []. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Cuvillier Verlag. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum. Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Nnaemeka, Obioma Female Circumcision as Impetus". Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck. Bodies and Voices: In Bertacco, Simon. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics. However, in most countries in Africa and the Middle East with representative data on attitudes 21 out of 29 , the majority of girls and women think it should end. Overall, the practice of FGM has been declining over the last three decades. In the 30 countries with nationally representative prevalence data, around 1 in 3 girls aged 15 to 19 today have undergone the practice versus 1 in 2 in the mids. However, not all countries have made progress and the pace of decline has been uneven. Patil and A. Is clitoridectomy in a traditional context an assault against women? Female circumcision in the U. In some countries, data have been collected through other nationally representative household surveys. After a few years, the module was modified and has been included in DHS for 23 countries to date. This is derived from self-reports. In most surveys, eligible respondents are all girls and women aged 15 to The second indicator used to report on the practice measures the extent of cutting among daughters of girls and women of reproductive age 15 to In surveys up to , female respondents who had at least one living daughter were asked about their eldest daughter: If the eldest daughter was reportedly not cut, respondents were asked if they intended to have their daughter cut. This was followed by questions about the procedure type, age at cutting and practitioner for the daughter most recently cut. As a result, prevalence estimates can be obtained for girls aged 0 to Effects across non-Muslim subgroups were largely similar, and the non-Muslim reference category was therefore maintained for analysis. The association between wealth and FGC varied across samples. In five countries greater wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised; in the other five, less wealth was associated with increased odds of having been circumcised. Wealth was inconsistently associated with having had a daughter circumcised; these associations were similar to those seen for having been circumcised. The associations between sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes were largely unaffected by excluding from the analysis those women who had never heard of FGC. Recognizing that the frequencies of our outcomes could represent changes in the prevalence of FGC over time, we plotted the data sequentially by country Fig. In all countries, the percentage of women who had their daughters circumcised was lower than the percentage who had themselves been circumcised. The relationship between believing that FGC should continue and having had a daughter circumcised was not consistent across countries. Burkina Faso and Mauritania were the only two countries where the percentage of women who believed that FGC should continue was lower than the percentage that had had their daughters circumcised. The estimated prevalence of FGC varied widely across countries, despite their geographic proximity, and this variation probably reflects the differences in political, social and historical contexts in countries where FGC is practiced. These findings are concerning, given the potential for causing a girl severe physical and psychological harm. We also recognize that the prevalence of FGC can vary substantially within the same country. Our findings show that certain women belonging to certain subgroups based on educational level, wealth and religion have significantly increased rates of FGC. Such rates can also vary within countries depending on ethnicity and geographic region. Although these variables could have enhanced our analysis, they were excluded to maintain comparability across country models. For instance, reports of FGC are common in the southern regions of Nigeria but are substantially less frequent in its northern regions. Recognizing the diversity within countries in western Africa is particularly important for developing interventions and targeting efforts to reduce FGC. Two countries — Burkina Faso and Mauritania — stand out for having succeeded in reducing FGC and support for this practice. This is evidenced by the fact that the percentages of women who have been circumcised, who report that their daughters have been circumcised, and who believe that FGC should continue have shown steady declines. Burkina Faso, for instance, has established the National Committee to Fight against the Practice of Excision, a government-led entity that seeks to make citizens aware of the dangers of FGC and to ensure that proper law enforcement is in place to convict people who continue the practice. Although several countries have passed legislation banning FGC, Burkina Faso is the only country in which people who break this law are commonly prosecuted. However, prosecution is rare. Based on the efforts and outcomes in both Burkina Faso and Mauritania, we postulate that four components are necessary for effectively reducing FGC practice and support. These include: First, community education and awareness can enable and facilitate affected communities to promote positive attitudes towards discontinuing the practice. Our results suggest subpopulations in each country where efforts could be targeted. Stopping female genital mutilations FGM requires action on strict enforcement of laws prohibiting the practice, medical and psychological care for women who are victims and prevention of FGM by education, risk assessment, early detection and engagement with community leaders. The phrase FGM is used to convey a number of different forms of surgery, mutilation or cutting of the female external genitalia. The term female circumcision is no longer used as it suggests equivalence with male circumcision, which is both inaccurate and counterproductive. There is no medical necessity for any such cutting, which is often performed by an unqualified individual in un-hygienic surroundings. FGM of any type is a violation of the human rights of girls and women, as it is a harmful procedure performed on a child who cannot give valid consent. As a result of migration a growing number of girls living outside countries where the practice is common are being affected. Respecting the social norms of immigrants is increasingly posing problems for physicians and the wider community. Because of its impact on the physical and mental health of women and children, and because it is a violation of human rights, FGM is a matter of concern to physicians. Physicians worldwide are confronted with the effects of this traditional practice. The extent of a primary procedure may vary: The majority of procedures performed are somewhere in between these two extremes. FGM has no health benefits and harms girls and women in many ways, regardless of which procedure is performed..

When women are faced with the decision to circumcise their own daughters or have already done so, their support of FGC may diminish. Furthermore, these younger women may not have been circumcised themselves and are therefore able to support the practice more easily without having experienced the medical and psychological complications that go here of the older women had.

Being less educated and Muslim were also generally associated with all three of our outcomes, suggesting that these subpopulations may be important groups more info intervention approaches in some countries. Correlates, however, were not always consistent across countries.

Additionally, in some countries wealth Circumcision female genital multilation october associated with higher odds of engaging in the practice, and in others it was associated with lower Circumcision female genital multilation october of engaging in the practice.

These variations reiterate contextual Circumcision female genital multilation october and the importance of having country-specific data to effectively tailor approaches for reducing and eliminating the practice of FGC.

Strengths of this study include its role in filling a large and significant gap in the peer-reviewed literature. Furthermore, medical and public health professionals in western Africa can use these results to identify patient subpopulations with whom they may need to address FGC practices and beliefs. Through this cross-country comparison, we were also able to highlight potential approaches for effectively reducing and eliminating this complex and deeply rooted practice.

We also generated the data needed to identify subgroups of women at high risk for FGC to ensure that these strategies may be effectively implemented. Our results should be interpreted in light of some limitations. First, we used only sample characteristics that were available in all countries and those that were largely consistent across countries, limiting our ability to describe practicing communities further. Second, it is possible that FGC-related practices and attitudes may have changed since the time of data collection — ; however, we used the most recent round of data made available by the MICS for this region.

Third, the data collected Circumcision female genital multilation october Sierra Leone may not be as comparable to other data as we may have wished. Questions for Sierra Leone did not refer to female circumcision or genital cutting, Circumcision female genital multilation october to initiation into the Bondo Society.

This alternative phrasing was deemed most relevant to the practicing culture in Sierra Leone, 27 although this measurement was markedly different from that used in other countries.

Fourth, responses may be subject to social desirability or recall Circumcision female genital multilation october, depending on the cultural context and strategies in place to eliminate FGC.

Women may have been motivated to underreport circumcision and their support for the practice, particularly in countries in which legislation exists against such behaviour.

Although other approaches, such as medical record reviews or examinations, 38 may have been more valid for measuring the prevalence of FGC, they were not feasible in these settings due to additional cost Circumcision female genital multilation october time. As a result, these self-reported data across several countries were best for meeting our research objectives. Last, our analysis did not consider the type of FGC that had been experienced by the women in our samples.

The type generally performed in each country, however, was not markedly different. Although action against FGC must be tempered with an understanding of the deeply rooted traditions that have allowed this practice to continue for so many generations, effective approaches for reducing FGC are critical. Despite widespread efforts, prevalence remains high in many countries, putting millions of girls at risk every year.

Successful strategies for eliminating FGC are likely to require multi-pronged approaches in which political, legal and cultural elements are choreographed to effect large-scale change.

Such concerted societal commitments are necessary for the benefit of future generations of women and girls. Health Topics. Why we need to talk about losing Circumcision female genital multilation october baby. About Us. Skip to main content.

Hindi Xxxbif Watch Video Rio naked. The Hosken Report: Women's International Network. Karanja, James The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Cuvillier Verlag. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. British Museum. Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport, Conn and London: Korieh, Chima Mackie, Gerry Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture Controversy and Change. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman View of Nigerian Doctors on the Medicalization Debate". Nnaemeka, Obioma Female Circumcision as Impetus". Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Nzegwu, Nkiru Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience. Rodriguez, Sarah B. Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck. Bodies and Voices: In Bertacco, Simon. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics. WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries". Berer, Marge 30 June It's female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted". Berg, Rigmor C. BMJ Open. Health Care for Women International. Black, J. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Cutner, Lawrence P. July Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April El Dareer, A. June International Journal of Epidemiology. Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions". Hayes, Rose Oldfield 17 June A Functional Analysis". American Ethnologist. Horowitz, Carol R. Carey; Teklemariam, Mamae 19 January New England Journal of Medicine. Iavazzo, Christos; Sardi, Thalia A. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Ismail, Edna Adan Edna Adan University Hospital. Jackson, Elizabeth F. Studies in Family Planning. Reproductive Health Matters. Archived from the original PDF on 21 September Jones, Wanda K. Who is at risk in the U. Public Health Reports Washington, D. BMJ Global Health. Kelly, Elizabeth; Hillard, Paula J. Adams October Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Khazan, Olga 8 April The Atlantic. Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny The Journal of Sex Research. Knight, Mary June Some remarks on the practice of female and male circumcision in Graeco-Roman Egypt". A Comparative Law Perspective". International Law Research. Kouba, Leonard J. An Overview". African Studies Review. Mandara, Mairo Usman March International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Mackie, Gerry December American Sociological Review. Mackie, Gerry June A Harmless Practice? Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Murray, Jocelyn Journal of Religion in Africa. Evidence suggests that FGM exists in places including Colombia [2] , India [3] , Malaysia [4] , Oman [5] , Saudi Arabia [6] and the United Arab Emirates [7] , with large variations in terms of the type performed, circumstances surrounding the practice and size of the affected population groups. In these contexts, however, the available evidence comes from sometimes outdated small-scale studies or anecdotal accounts, and there are no representative data as yet on prevalence. The practice is also found in pockets of Europe and in Australia and North America which, for the last several decades, have been destinations for migrants from countries where the practice still occurs [8]. The highest levels of support can be found in Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, the Gambia, Somalia and Egypt where more than half of the female population thinks the practice should continue. However, in most countries in Africa and the Middle East with representative data on attitudes 21 out of 29 , the majority of girls and women think it should end. Overall, the practice of FGM has been declining over the last three decades. In the 30 countries with nationally representative prevalence data, around 1 in 3 girls aged 15 to 19 today have undergone the practice versus 1 in 2 in the mids. However, not all countries have made progress and the pace of decline has been uneven. Patil and A. Is clitoridectomy in a traditional context an assault against women? Female circumcision in the U. In some countries, data have been collected through other nationally representative household surveys. After a few years, the module was modified and has been included in DHS for 23 countries to date. This is derived from self-reports. In most surveys, eligible respondents are all girls and women aged 15 to The second indicator used to report on the practice measures the extent of cutting among daughters of girls and women of reproductive age 15 to Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; These beliefs are strongly rooted in tradition, culture and religion, but none carries a scientific basis. When accompanied by excessive bleeding, it can even lead to death. Despite the risks associated with FGC, the peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence and predictors of FGC is sparse. Such data would be helpful for understanding the variation in the frequency of FGC, particularly in western Africa, where the practice is known to be common despite legislation and other efforts to curb its prevalence. Western Africa is also particularly well suited for cross-national comparisons because substantial differences exist between countries in prevalence rates and in the approaches used to eliminate this practice. These differences can bring to light potential strategies that may be useful in similar settings. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of FGC practices and beliefs across all western African countries for which national data were available from the most recent round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. We also aimed to identify correlates of these practices and beliefs to identify high-risk subpopulations. This evidence may be useful to help better understand country-level variation in this persistent but widely criticized practice 1 , 23 , 24 and to target efforts to rid future generations of the practice of FGC in western Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10 countries in western Africa using self-reported data collected between the years and during the third round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. Surveys were conducted in French in all countries except Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, where they were conducted in English. Households were systematically sampled from each enumeration area. Total sample size varied by country. We examined three primary outcome measures. If yes, how many? For analysis, this variable was dichotomized into yes at least 1 daughter circumcised versus no no daughters circumcised. Have you ever heard about this practice? For analysis, this third variable was collapsed into two categories: Participants who had not heard of FGC were coded as missing for this outcome. Our independent variables included basic sociodemographic characteristics that were available across all countries, including age 5-year age groups , educational level none, primary, above primary , marital status currently married, formerly married, never married , wealth quintile and religion Muslim versus non-Muslim. Subgroups of non-Muslims were examined for differential effects. Wealth quintiles were derived by the MICS using a combination of reported household assets and utility services. Analyses were performed separately for each country. We first generated weighted frequencies to determine the prevalence of the three outcomes and to describe the characteristics of the sample populations. We then examined the potential for multicollinearity among the independent variables by using an average threshold correlation coefficient of 0. These reasons do not justify the considerable damages to physical and mental health. None of the major religions supports this practice, which is otherwise often wrongly linked to religious beliefs. FGM is a form of violence usually perpetuated on young women and girls and represents a lack of respect for their individuality, freedom and autonomy. Physicians may be faced with parents seeking a physician to perform FGM, or they may become aware of parents who seek to take girls to places where the practice is commonly available. They must be prepared to intervene to protect the girl. Medical associations should prepare guidance on how to manage these requests which may include invoking local laws that protect children from harm and may include involving police and other agencies. They should be confident in handling such requests and supported with appropriate educational material that will enable them to discuss with the patient the medically approved option of repairing the damage done by FGM and by childbirth. There is a growing tendency for physicians and other health care professionals in some countries to perform FGM because of a wish to reduce the risks involved. Some practitioners may believe that medicalization of the procedure is a step towards its eradication. Performing FGM is a breach of medical ethics and human rights, and involvement by physicians may give it credibility. In most countries performing this procedure is a violation of the law. Governments in several countries have developed legislation, such as prohibiting FGM in their criminal codes..

Female genital cutting: Methods Study design and sample We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10 countries in western Africa Circumcision female genital multilation october self-reported data collected between the years and during the third round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys MICS. Table 1. G spot and clit vibrator.

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